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Drawing boundary through DEM of glacier valley using ArcGIS for Desktop?

Drawing boundary through DEM of glacier valley using ArcGIS for Desktop?


I want to calculate/draw the boundary extent in Glacier valley with the help of DEM.

Can you please guide me which is the best tools in ArcGIS and steps to calculate.


Measurement types available with the Measure tool

The Choose Measurement Type drop-down list provides a selection of measurement types to use for distance measurement. Measurement types available include Planar , Geodesic , Loxodrome , and Great Elliptic .

Measurement type of the measure tool

Planar measurement use 2D Cartesian mathematics to calculate lengths and areas. This option is only available when measuring in a projected coordinate system and the 2D plane of that coordinate system will be used as the basis for the measurements. All area measurements calculated with the measure tool are planar.

The shortest line between any two points on the earth's surface on a spheroid (ellipsoid). One use for a geodesic line is when you want to determine the shortest distance between two cities for an airplane's flight path. This is also known as a great circle line if based on a sphere rather than an ellipsoid.

A loxodrome is not the shortest distance between two points but instead defines the line of constant bearing, or azimuth. Great circle routes are often broken into a series of loxodromes, which simplifies navigation. This is also known as a rhumb line.

The line on a spheroid (ellipsoid) defined by the intersection at the surface by a plane that passes through the center of the spheroid and the start and endpoints of a segment. This is also known as a great circle when a sphere is used. The great elliptic type allows you to create lines only.

When measuring in a data frame with a projected coordinate system, the default measurement type will be Planar . This means that 2D Cartesian mathematics are used to calculate lengths. Planar measurements reflect the projection of geographic data onto the 2D surface (in other words, they will not take into account the curvature of the earth). Geodesic , Loxodrome , and Great Elliptic measurement types may be chosen as an alternative if desired.

When measuring in a data frame with a geographic coordinate system, the default measurement type is Geodesic . Planar line measurements and all area measurements will be unavailable when measuring in a geographic coordinate system. Loxodrome and Great Elliptic measurement types may be chosen as an alternative if desired.


Analyzing surfaces

Surface analysis involves several kinds of processing, including extracting new surfaces from existing surfaces, reclassifying surfaces, and combining surfaces.

Certain tools extract or derive information from a surface, a combination of surfaces, or surfaces and vector data.

Terrain analysis tools

Some of these tools are primarily designed for the analysis of raster terrain surfaces. These include Slope , Aspect , Hillshade , and Curvature tools.

Below is an example of an elevation raster in planimetric and perspective views.

The Slope tool calculates the maximum rate of change from a cell to its neighbors, which is typically used to indicate the steepness of terrain.

Below is an example of an Slope raster in planimetric and perspective views.

The Aspect tool calculates the direction in which the plane fitted to the slope faces for each cell. The aspect of a surface typically affects the amount of sunlight it receives (as does the slope) in northern latitudes places with a southerly aspect tend to be warmer and drier than places that have a northerly aspect.

Below is an example of an aspect raster in planimetric and perspective views.

Hillshade shows the intensity of lighting on a surface given a light source at a particular location it can model which parts of a surface would be shadowed by other parts.

Below is an example of a hillshade raster in planimetric and perspective views.

Curvature calculates the slope of the slope (the second derivative of the surface), that is, whether a given part of a surface is convex or concave. Convex parts of surfaces, like ridges, are generally exposed and drain to other areas. Concave parts of surfaces, like channels, are generally more sheltered and accept drainage from other areas. The Curvature tool has a couple of optional variants, Plan and Profile Curvature. These are used primarily to interpret the effect of terrain on water flow and erosion. The profile curvature affects the acceleration and deceleration of flow, which influence erosion and deposition. The planiform curvature influences convergence and divergence of flow.

Below is an example of a curvature raster in planimetric and perspective views.

Visibility tools

Some tools are used to analyze the visibility of parts of surfaces. The Line Of Sight tool identifies whether or not one location is visible from another, and whether or not the intervening locations along a line between the two locations are visible.

Below is an example of a Line of Sight analysis. An observer at the southern end of the line can see the parts of the terrain along the line that are colored green, and cannot see the parts of the terrain along the line that are colored red. In this case, the observer cannot see the fire in the valley on the other side of the mountain.

The visibility tools support offsets, which allow you to specify the height of the observer points and the observed points or cells.

Below is an example of a Line Of Sight analysis comparing the results with no offset and with a target offset. Locations along the line that are visible to the observer are green, and those that are hidden by intervening terrain are red.

You might use a target offset to model a building or a smoke plume.

With a large target offset, the target is visible, even though the visibility of the points along the intervening terrain do not change.

You could add an offset to the observer as well, to model a tower at the observer location. Adding an observer offset generally increases the amount of terrain that is visible from a location.

The Observer Points tool identifies which observers, specified as a set of points, can see any given cell of a raster surface. The Viewshed tool calculates, for each cell of a raster surface and a set of input points (or the vertices of input lines), how many observers can see any given cell.

Below is an example of a Viewshed analysis with a single input observer point. The observer has an offset to model the view from a fire tower 50 meters taller than the ground surface. Cells outside the observer's viewshed are blacked out in the image on the right.

In the perspective views below, you can see the observer point and the terrain.

Ridges hide the valleys behind them from the observer point.

Both the Observer Points and Viewshed tools also allow you to specify observer and target offsets, as well as a set of parameters that let you limit the directions and distance that each observer can view.

Volume tools

Some tools are used to calculate volumes from surface information. These tools calculate the difference in volume between a raster or TIN surface and another surface. Depending on the tool, the other surface might be specified by a horizontal plane at a given elevation or by a second raster or TIN surface.

Below is an example of a terrain surface representing the typical fill level of a reservoir. You could use the volume tools to calculate the volume of additional water when the reservoir is near capacity.

The Surface Volume tool is used to calculate volume of a surface above or below a horizontal plane at a specific elevation. You might use this tool to calculate the volume of water in a section of river channel at a particular flood stage. This tool can be used on raster or TIN surfaces. The output of the tool is a text file reporting the parameters used and the resulting surface area and volumes.

The Cut Fill tool is used to calculate the amount of difference in each cell for a before and after raster of the same area. This tool could be used to calculate the volume of earth that must be brought to or removed from a construction site to reshape a surface. This tool works on two rasters, and the results are presented as a raster of the difference between the two layers.

The TIN Difference tool is similar to the Cut/Fill tool, but it works on a pair of input TIN surfaces. This tool creates a polygon feature class where each polygon is given attributes identifying whether the second TIN is above, below, or the same as the first TIN and the volume of the difference between the TINs in that polygon.

The TIN Polygon Volume tool calculates the volume difference and surface area for each polygon in a feature class relative to a TIN surface. Each polygon in the feature class represents a horizontal area at an elevation specified in a height field. The volume above or below this planar area to the TIN surface is added to a volume field in the feature class, and the surface area of the polygon is added to a surface area field.

Reclassification tools

One way to convert surface data into more usable information for an analysis is to reclassify the surface. Reclassifying a surface sets a range of values equal to a single value. You might reclassify a surface so that areas with cells above a given value, or between two critical values, are given one code, and other areas are given another or, you might use the Reclassify (or Slice ) tool to divide a surface up into a given number of classes as a means of aggregating and generalizing detailed data. Reclassifying surfaces is often done to reduce the number of output categories for an overlay analysis.

Below is an example of an elevation raster sliced into several classes (each class represents a range of elevation values) and reclassified into two classes (above and below a given elevation).

Below is an example of an aspect raster reclassified into two classes south and southwest aspect slopes have a value of 1 (light), and other aspects have a value of 0 (dark).

Distance tools

Some distance tools create rasters that show the distance of each cell from a set of locations.

The tools include the shortest straight-line distance to a set of source features and the direction of the closest feature. The Euclidean Allocation tool creates zones of a surface that are allocated to the closest feature.

The Cost Distance , Cost Path , Cost Back Link , and Cost Allocation tools are used to find the shortest (least cost) path from sources to destinations, taking into account a raster that quantifies the cost of traversing the surface. The cost raster may reflect difficulty, energy, time, or dollar costs or a unitless composite of several factors that influence the cost of travel or flow across a surface. The Path set of tools perform much the same function as the Cost set but take the additional factors of surface distance and vertical travel difficulty (cost) into account that is, the fact that the length of a given line over hilly terrain is longer than the same line on a perfectly flat surface and the fact that it may be easier to move along a slope than it is to move up or down the slope.

For more information about the Distance tools, see the Proximity Analysis section.

Overlay tools

Raster overlay tools combine two or more rasters using logical, arithmetic, or weighted combination methods. The Weighted Overlay and Weighted Sum tools allows you to combine multiple rasters of varying importance. This is useful in site suitability analyses when several factors contribute to suitability, but certain factors contribute more heavily than others.

Some tools perform algebraic or logical operations upon surfaces. The Spatial Analyst Neighborhood tools, such as the block and focal functions, compute values for the cells of an output raster based on the values of surrounding cells these can be used to remove noise or enhance edge contrasts, or resample rasters to a lower resolution. Local functions combine, compare, or summarize several rasters on a cell by cell basis. Zonal functions calculate for each cell some function or statistic using the value for all cells belonging to the same zone.


Proximity tools

Vector distance tools

Creates new feature data with feature boundaries at a specified distance from input features

Adds attribute fields to a point feature class containing distance, feature identifier, angle, and coordinates of the nearest point or line feature

Selects features from a target feature class within a given distance of (or using other spatial relationships) the input features

Creates polygons of the areas closest to each feature for a set of input features

Sets analysis parameters to find the closest location or set of locations on a network to another location or set of locations

Sets analysis parameters to find polygons that define the area within a given distance along a network in all directions from one or more locations

Sets analysis parameters to find the shortest path among a set of points

Sets analysis parameters to create a matrix of network distances among two sets of points

Raster distance tools

Raster distance tools are located in ArcToolbox in the Distance toolset (in the Spatial Analyst Tools toolbox) and the Functional Surface toolset (in the 3D Analyst Tools toolbox).

Calculates the distance to the nearest source for each cell.

Gives each cell the identifier of the closest source.

Calculates the direction to the nearest source for each cell.

Calculates the distance to the nearest source for each cell, minimizing cost specified in a cost surface.

Gives each cell the identifier of the closest source, minimizing cost specified in a cost surface.

Calculates the least-cost path from a source to a destination, minimizing cost specified in a cost surface.

Identifies for each cell the neighboring cell that is on the least-cost path from a source to a destination, minimizing cost specified in a cost surface.

Calculates the distance to the nearest source for each cell, minimizing horizontal cost specified in a cost surface, as well as the terrain-based costs of surface distance and vertical travel difficulty specified by a terrain raster and vertical cost parameters.

Gives each cell the identifier of the closest source, minimizing horizontal cost specified in a cost surface, as well as the terrain-based costs of surface distance and vertical travel difficulty specified by a terrain raster and vertical cost parameters.

Identifies for each cell the neighboring cell that is on the least-cost path from a source to a destination, minimizing horizontal cost specified in a cost surface, as well as the terrain-based costs of surface distance and vertical travel difficulty specified by a terrain raster and vertical cost parameters.

Calculates the sum of accumulative cost for two input cost distance rasters. The cells below a given threshold value define an area, or corridor, between sources where the two costs are minimized.

Calculates the length of line features across a surface, accounting for terrain.


Computer Aided Drafting

This program of study prepares the students to be a drafting technician capable of working with engineers in the many facets of the technical drawing and solid modeling design fields. Emphasis is placed on the architectural and mechanical drafting along with drafting courses for technical comprehension of the subject. Topics include conventional drafting methods and computer-aided drafting (CAD) systems such as AutoCAD, MicroStation, and Solidworks. This program balances computer software skills with design and drafting skills. The Computer-Aided Drafting Certificate constitutes the first year of the degree program without college seminar and Physical Education. It may also be used as preparation for the Mechanical or Civil Engineering Technology degree programs. At least one year of high school or equivalent, including algebra, is recommended.

Goal 1 The graduate will be proficient with architectural and civil drafting

  • The student will demonstrate the ability to produce several types of architectural and civil drawings.
  • The student will demonstrate understanding of the basic methods and materials used in light building construction.

Goal 2 The graduate will enter the field of architectural drafting

Goal 3 The graduate will complete drawings based on standard inputs from the architectural / civil field

  • The student will demonstrate standard drawing methods that include a variety of architectural concepts, facts and details.

Goal 4 The graduate will successfully communicate architectural concepts and details using drawings

  • The student will prepare architectural drawings based on generally accepted national and international standards.
  • The student will demonstrate the use of universal technical concepts (e.g. mathematics).

Goal 5 The graduate will communicate effectively within the architectural industry

  • The student will demonstrate the ability to clearly describe architectural drawings in an oral presentation.
  • The student will demonstrate the ability to gather information needed for drawings using the internet.

Goal 6 To prepare students to demonstrate information literacy

  • Students will use traditional and contemporary information technology
  • Students will identify, access, and appropriately use authoritative sources of information

Gainful Employment - follow the link below for gainful employment information.

Total Credit Hours: 30 - 32

First Semester

CT265 Introduction to Geographic Information Systems Credits: 3.0

This course introduces the techniques and concepts of GIS. The mapping software package ArcGIS is used to display, analyze, and query spatial data sets. Topics include coordinate systems/datums, symbology, classifications, digital imagery, and global positioning systems. (Fall semester)

Mathematics Elective (a) Credits: 3.0 - 4.0

MA105 Technical Mathematics 1 Credits: 4.0

This course covers the four fundamental operations on integers, rational numbers, and real numbers. It includes the study of weights and measures, exponents and radicals, factoring, and linear equations, with an emphasis on technical applications.

MA106 Technical Mathematics 2 Credits: 3.0

This course is a continuation of MA105 Technical Mathematics 1, with further topics from algebra as well as from geometry and trigonometry, and an emphasis on technical applications. Prerequisite: MA105 Technical Mathematics 1.

MA115 Intermediate Mathematics Credits: 4.0

This course introduces intermediate algebra-level knowledge and skills. Topics include exponents and radicals, polynomial and rational expressions, functions and relations and their graphs, inequalities, and systems of linear equations. Linear, quadratic, rational, and radical equations are solved. Applications are included. Prerequisite: An appropriate placement test result or MA 091 Introductory Algebra, or equivalent.

MA121 Fundamentals of College Mathematics 1 Credits: 4.0

This is the first of a two-course sequence for students in programs that require mathematics through polynomial calculus. Algebraic manipulations, graphing skills and problem solving are emphasized. Topics include systems of linear equations including Cramer’s Rule, quadratic equations, variation, factoring and fractions, vectors and oblique triangles, and an introduction to trigonometry and applications. Prerequisite: An appropriate placement test result or MA115 Intermediate Mathematics.

MA122 Fundamentals of College Mathematics 2 Credits: 4.0

This is the second of a two-course sequence for students in programs that require mathematics through polynomial calculus. Topics include complex numbers, exponential and logarithmic functions, analytic geometry, limits, derivatives and integrals of polynomial functions, applications of the derivative, and area under a curve. Prerequisite: MA121 Fundamentals of College Mathematics 1.

MA125 College Algebra and Trigonometry Credits: 4.0

This course prepares students for MA150 Precalculus. Topics include linear and quadratic equations inequalities rational expressions trigonometric functions graphs of linear, quadratic, piecewise, and trigonometric functions and, systems of equations. Algebraic and trigonometric manipulations and problem-solving are emphasized. Prerequisite: An appropriate placement test result or MA115 Intermediate Mathematics.

MA150 Precalculus Credits: 4.0

This course prepares students for calculus through a study of the properties and graphs of polynomial, rational, trigonometric, inverse trigonometric, exponential, and logarithmic functions. Topics include an introduction to mathematical argument and conic sections. Emphasis is placed on the function concept and the appropriate use of the language of mathematics. Prerequisite: An appropriate placement test result or MA125 College Algebra & Trigonometry.

MA151 Calculus 1 Credits: 4.0

This is the first in a sequence of three courses in calculus. Topics include limits and continuity, differentiation of algebraic and trigonometric functions, and indefinite and definite integration. Applications are included. Prerequisite: An appropriate placement test result or MA150 Precalculus.

MA152 Calculus 2 Credits: 4.0

This is the second in a sequence of three courses in calculus. Topics include the integration of trigonometric functions, the differentiation and integration of the inverse trigonometric functions, further techniques in integration, L’Hopital’s Rule, improper integrals, and infinite series. Applications are included. Prerequisite: MA151 Calculus 1.

MA253 Calculus 3 Credits: 4.0

This is the third in a sequence of three courses in calculus for students intending to transfer to programs requiring a thorough background in calculus. Topics include polar and space coordinates multiple integration, partial differentiation, and the algebra and calculus of vectors. Applications are included. Prerequisite: MA152 Calculus 2.

MA260 Differential Equations Credits: 3.0

This course introduces the concepts and theory of ordinary differential equations. Topics include existence and uniqueness of solutions, and separable, homogenous, exact, and linear differential equations. Methods involving integrating factors, undetermined coefficients, and variation of parameters, power series, numerical approximation, and systems of differential equations using differential operators are covered. Applications are drawn from geometry, chemistry, biology, and physics. Prerequisite: MA152 Calculus 2. (Spring Semester only)

MA275 Discrete Algebraic Structures Credits: 4.0

This course introduces mathematical systems. Topics include methods of proof, sets, logic, functions, relations, graphs, trees, and algebraic systems. Prerequisite: MA151 Calculus 1. (Fall Semester only)

MA280 Linear Algebra Credits: 3.0

This course begins with geometric concepts and transitions to more abstract reasoning. Topics include systems of linear equations, matrix algebra, determinants, vector spaces, bases, linear transformations, Eigen values, and inner products. Prerequisite: MA152 Calculus 2. (Spring Semester only)

English Elective (b) Credits: 3.0

EN101 English 1: Composition Credits: 3.0

EN101 English 1: Composition C-3 Cr-3

This course focuses on several kinds of writing-self-expressive, informative, and argumentative/persuasive, and others. A minimum of five essay compositions are required. The course emphasizes the composition of clear, correct, and effective prose required in a variety of professions and occupations.Prerequisites: The required developmental reading (DS051 Essential Reading & Study Skills, or SL115 ESL4: Advanced Reading), and/or writing courses (EN099 Introduction to College English or SL116 ESL4: Advanced Composition) or permission of the instructor or designee.

EN110 Oral and Written Communication Credits: 3.0

This course covers the effective oral and written contexts of occupational communications. It includes practice in oral presentations, business letters, resumes, memos, instructional materials and reports, and visual aids. It is designed specifically for A.O.S. degree programs. Prerequisite: An appropriate placement test result or successful completion of DS051 Essential Reading & Study Skills, or SL115 ESL4: Advanced Reading, and successful completion of either EN099 Introduction to College English or SL116 ESL4: Advanced Composition.

MT140 Drafting and Design Using AutoCAD Credits: 3.0

This course provides the foundation and problem-solving skills necessary to develop and interpret engineering drawings using the computer-aided drafting software (AutoCAD). Topics include assembly and detail drawing composition design for assembly/manufacturing (DFA/DFM) geometric dimensioning and tolerancing tolerance control and standard fits fasteners gearing sheet metal developments weldments functional drafting techniques and the development of 2-D and 3-D CAD generated drawings and system operations.

MT155 Introduction to Solid Modeling Credits: 3.0

This course is an introduction into the use of three-dimensional solid modeling CAD software. Topics include creating models using features such as protrusions, cuts, rounds, blends, revolutions, and sweeps. Model planning and design intent are stressed. Assemblies, drawings, documentation, and detailing are also covered, as well as output and interfaces with common software such as spreadsheets and word processing.

CT102 Engineering Drawing and Microstation CAD Credits: 3.0

This course includes both basic technical drawing techniques and MicroStation CAD to support engineering design. Topics include line types, dimensioning, scaling, auxiliary views, sectioning, and notations. This course also introduces the use of MicroStation software. Topics include operational concepts main palette use projecting elements entity construction and editing entity manipulations and text and dimensioning parameters.

Second Semester

CT266 Capstone Geographic Information Systems Credits: 3.0

This independent study capstone course involves the creation of a project using GIS. Proposals must have instructor approval. Projects incorporate collecting GPS data, building an attribute geo-database, and are completed using ArcGIS software. Final presentations are required, which explain data collection techniques, analysis, and project success. Prerequisite: CT265 Introduction to Geographic Information Systems (GIS). (Spring semester)

MT112 Architectural Drafting Credits: 3.0

This course is an introduction to the standard drawing techniques and design concepts used for residential and light commercial buildings. Topics include foundations, framing, windows and doors, structural sections, floor plans, elevations, specifications, building codes, and perspectives. Prerequisite: MT140 Drafting and Design Using AutoCAD.

MT251 Advanced AutoCAD Credits: 3.0

This is an advanced course using AutoCAD. Topics include menu customization, theory and operational concepts for three-dimensional CAD drawings and models, solid modeling, rendering and editing techniques. Prerequisites: MT140 Drafting and Design Using AutoCAD or permission of the Dean for Mathematics, Engineering, Physical Sciences, and Applied Technology..

Program Elective (c) Credits: 3.0 - 4.0

MT242 Advanced MicroStation CAD Credits: 3.0

This is an advanced level course using MicroStation. Topics include theory and operational concepts for three-dimensional CAD drawings and models, solid modeling, rendering, display, and editing techniques. Prerequisites: CT102 Engineering Drawing and MicroStation CAD, or permission of the Dean for Mathematics, Engineering, Physical Sciences, and Applied Technology.

MT256 Advanced Solid Modeling Credits: 3.0

This course covers advanced solid modeling concepts and techniques. Topics include creating complex parametric models and assemblies using all feature types creating detail and assembly drawings with various sectioning and view techniques measurements surfaces and motion and analysis models. Model and assembly pre-planning are emphasized. Prerequisites: MT155 Introduction to Solid Modeling or permission of the Associate Dean for Physical Sciences, Engineering & Applied Technologies.

Math Elective (d) Credits: 4.0

(a) Math Electives include: MA105, MA106, MA115, MA121, MA122, MA125, MA150, MA151, MA152, MA253, MA260, MA275, or MA280.

(b) English Electives include: EN101 English 1: Composition OR EN110 Oral and Written Communications.

(c) Program Electives include: Students interested in mechanical design should plan on taking MT256 Advanced Solid Modeling. Students interested in civil/architecture/construction should take MT242 Advanced MicroStation.

(d) Students interested in pursuing a degree should choose this option. Math Electives include: MA106, MA115, MA121, MA122, MA125, MA150, MA151, MA152, MA253, MA260, MA275, or MA280.


Calculating area, length, and other geometric properties

The Calculate Geometry tool allows you to access the geometry of the features in a layer. The tool can calculate coordinate values, lengths, and areas, depending on the geometry of the input layer. You can only calculate the area, length, or perimeter of features if the coordinate system being used is projected. Keep in mind that different projections have different spatial properties and distortions. If the coordinate system of the data source and data frame are not the same, you may get a different result if you calculate geometry using the data frame's coordinate system than when you calculate using the data source's coordinate system. It is recommended that an equal-area projection be used when calculating areas.

If you want to calculate Xmin, Xmax, Ymin, or Ymax, you can do so using Python with the field calculator see Calculate Field examples.

You can use the Calculate Geometry dialog box to update the area, length, or perimeter of shapefile features, since these properties are not automatically updated when you edit features in shapefiles.

You can only calculate z-coordinate values or 3D measurements if the feature is z aware. Z-coordinate values and 3D measurements can be calculated regardless of the chosen coordinate system. The units listed for z and 3D calculations are planar (miles, meters, and so on) as long as a vertical coordinate system has been defined for the layer. If the data does not have a vertical coordinate system defined, the units are listed as unknown. For more information on z-values and feature geometry types, see Feature class basics.

You can make calculations without being in an editing session however, in that case, there is no way to undo the results.

You can only perform geometric calculations on attribute tables.

Optionally, you can press CTRL+SHIFT+G to open the Calculate Geometry dialog box.

Different properties are available depending on the type of layer you're using.

If you are calculating into a text field, you can choose to add a units abbreviation to the calculation. For instance, 47.5673 sq m is an example of the output of area calculated into a text field with the units abbreviation.

Caution:

You can't undo a field calculation when performed outside an edit session.

To avoid seeing a warning message when you attempt to calculate values outside an edit session, you can check the Don't warn me again box on the message. You can turn on the warning message again from the Tables tab on the ArcMap Options dialog box.

The Calculate Geometry dialog box respects the number of decimal places (three, by default) specified on the General tab of the Editing Options dialog box. To change this setting, click the Editor menu on the Editor toolbar and click Options . This setting is saved in the map document.


Computer Aided Drafting

This program of study prepares the student to be a drafting technician capable of working with professionals in the many facets of the technical drawing and solid modeling design fields. Emphasis is placed on architectural and mechanical drafting along with related courses for technical comprehension of the subject. The development of problem solving skills is stressed. Topics include conventional drafting methods and computer-aided drafting (CAD) systems such as AutoCAD, MicroStation, and Solidworks. With the addition of ED100 College Seminar and Physical Education, the Computer-Aided Drafting certificate constitutes the first year of this program. At least one year of high school mathematics or equivalent, including algebra, is recommended.

Goal 1 The graduate is proficient with common applications computer-aided drafting technology

  • The student will demonstrate the ability to produce several types of drawings using CAD software.

Goal 2 The graduate will enter the field of computer-aided drafting

  • The graduate will enter a career related to the computer-aided drafting field within three years of graduation.

Goal 3 The graduate will complete drawings using standard CAD techniques

  • The student will demonstrate the use of standard CAD drawing methods to prepare a variety of technical drawings.

Goal 4 The graduate will successfully interact with others through drawings and other technical means.

  • The student will prepare CAD drawings based on generally accepted national and international standards.
  • The student will demonstrate the use of universal technical concepts (e.g. mathematics, Newtonian mechanics).

Goal 5 The graduate will communicate effectively

  • The student will demonstrate the ability to clearly describe CAD drawings and techniques in an oral presentation.
  • The student will demonstrate the ability to gather information needed for drawings using the internet.

Goal 6 The graduate will quantitatively analyze common CAD problems.

  • The student will demonstrate quantitative skills directly applicable to common CAD and technical problems.

Goal 7 To prepare students to demonstrate information literacy

  • Students will use traditional and contemporary information technology
  • Students will identify, access, and appropriately use authoritative sources of information

Total Credit Hours: 64

First Semester

CF100 College Foundations Seminar Credits: 1.0

This course is an opportunity for students to develop the skills necessary to be successful in college. Students learn the importance of the faculty-student and advisor-advisee relationship, develop time management techniques, apply effective study skill techniques, recognize the implications of living in a diverse society, utilize college resources, and explore career and transfer requirements. Collaborative projects are included. Students matriculated in a degree program must take this course in their first term of study.

English Elective (a) Credits: 3.0

EN101 English 1: Composition Credits: 3.0

EN101 English 1: Composition C-3 Cr-3

This course focuses on several kinds of writing-self-expressive, informative, and argumentative/persuasive, and others. A minimum of five essay compositions are required. The course emphasizes the composition of clear, correct, and effective prose required in a variety of professions and occupations.Prerequisites: The required developmental reading (DS051 Essential Reading & Study Skills, or SL115 ESL4: Advanced Reading), and/or writing courses (EN099 Introduction to College English or SL116 ESL4: Advanced Composition) or permission of the instructor or designee.

EN110 Oral and Written Communication Credits: 3.0

This course covers the effective oral and written contexts of occupational communications. It includes practice in oral presentations, business letters, resumes, memos, instructional materials and reports, and visual aids. It is designed specifically for A.O.S. degree programs. Prerequisite: An appropriate placement test result or successful completion of DS051 Essential Reading & Study Skills, or SL115 ESL4: Advanced Reading, and successful completion of either EN099 Introduction to College English or SL116 ESL4: Advanced Composition.

CT265 Introduction to Geographic Information Systems Credits: 3.0

This course introduces the techniques and concepts of GIS. The mapping software package ArcGIS is used to display, analyze, and query spatial data sets. Topics include coordinate systems/datums, symbology, classifications, digital imagery, and global positioning systems. (Fall semester)

MA105 Technical Mathematics 1 Credits: 4.0

This course covers the four fundamental operations on integers, rational numbers, and real numbers. It includes the study of weights and measures, exponents and radicals, factoring, and linear equations, with an emphasis on technical applications.

MT140 Drafting and Design Using AutoCAD Credits: 3.0

This course provides the foundation and problem-solving skills necessary to develop and interpret engineering drawings using the computer-aided drafting software (AutoCAD). Topics include assembly and detail drawing composition design for assembly/manufacturing (DFA/DFM) geometric dimensioning and tolerancing tolerance control and standard fits fasteners gearing sheet metal developments weldments functional drafting techniques and the development of 2-D and 3-D CAD generated drawings and system operations.



COVID 19 Dashboard App
Click the link above to view an ArcGIS Online dashboard application showing deaths by municipality due to COVID-19.

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Click the link above to view an ArcGIS Online Hub Site showing more information about COVID-19 in Lancaster County.

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National Hydrography Dataset

The National Hydrography Dataset (NHD) represents the water drainage network of the United States with features such as rivers, streams, canals, lakes, ponds, coastline, dams, and streamgages. The NHD is the most up-to-date and comprehensive hydrography dataset for the Nation.

National Hydrography Dataset (NHD)

The most current version of the National Hydrography Dataset, the NHD High Resolution, is mapped at a scale of 1:24,000 or larger scale (1:63,360 or larger scale in Alaska). These data are updated and maintained through Stewardship partnerships with states and other collaborative bodies. The NHD High Resolution, along with the Watershed Boundary Dataset (WBD) and 3D Elevation Program (3DEP) data, is used to create the NHDPlus High Resolution.

The file geodatabase download maintains the richness of the NHD complex database model, including multiple feature datasets, feature classes, event feature classes, attribute tables, relationship classes, domains, and feature-level metadata. The shapefile download simplifies this structure by containing all of the feature classes as separate shapefiles and tables as separate data files.

NHD Data Model Overview

The NHD file geodatabase download contains NHD data in the Hydrography feature dataset. It also includes the WBD in a second feature dataset.

NHD Line features

NHDFlowline is the fundamental flow network consisting predominantly of stream/river and artificial path vector features. It represents the spatial geometry, carries the attributes, and contains linear referencing measures for locating features or “events” on the network. Additional NHDFlowline features are canal/ditch, pipeline, connector, underground conduit, and coastline.

NHDLine contains linear features not core to the network.

NHD Area features

Waterbodies such as lake/pond features are represented in NHDWaterbody. They portray the spatial geometry and the attributes of the feature. These water polygons may have NHDFlowline artificial paths drawn through them to allow the representation of water flow direction. Other NHDWaterbody features are swamp/marsh, reservoir, playa, estuary, and ice mass.

NHDArea contains many additional water-polygon features. One of the more important is the stream/river feature. It represents the areal extent of the water in a wide stream/river with a basic set of attributes. These polygons typically encompass NHDFlowline artificial paths that represent the stream network. Artificial path carries the critical attributes of the stream/river, whereas NHDArea represents the geometric extent.

NHD Point features

NHDPoint contains hydrography related point features.

NHD Events

NHDPointEventFC, NHDLineEventFC, and NHDAreaEventFC represent point, line, and area data events that behave as map features and linearly referenced events. Streamgages, which are point features, can be displayed and identified in the network through linear referencing with a network address.

NHD Tables

Information about the NHD also can be obtained in a series of associated tables. This includes metadata stored in NHDFeaturetoMetadata and NHDMetadata, sources given in NHDSourceCitation, identification of model and data version given in NHDProcessingParameters, flow relations given in NHDFlow, reach code histories given in NHDReachCrossReference, the domain of feature codes given in NHDFCode, and others.

Legacy Medium Resolution NHD (1:100,000)

In the late 1990s, the USGS and the US EPA collaborated to produce the medium resolution National Hydrography Dataset at 1:100,000 scale for the conterminous U.S. In the early 2000s, the US EPA assumed the role of primary custodian for the NHD Medium Resolution to support their applications and those of other medium resolution users, while the USGS, U.S. Forest Service, and additional partners initiated the production of the NHD at 1:24,000 scale or better. More background regarding the development history of NHD and related datasets may be found in the document Making the Digital Water Flow: The Evolution of Geospatial Surfacewater Frameworks.

Today, the US EPA manages the maintenance and distribution of NHD Medium Resolution as part of the NHDPlus Version 2 suite of products, which can be downloaded from the EPA NHDPlus website.


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